Concurrency is a small toolkit I built for handling concurrency and encapsulating asynchronous work in the Swift programming language. There are several different paradigms for handling concurrency in Swift, and I think they each have specific use cases. Most notably, for continuous updates, subscriptions, and streams of data, RxSwift is pretty much king. Concurrency sets out to fill out the other use cases, and if nothing else, I think I make a fairly solid case why you should never use the old (ExpectedType?, Error?)->()-style completion handler ever again.


Though I did not consult their source code, my implementation of Promise/Future draws inspiration from my extensive professional and personal use of Deferred and, to a lesser extent, BrightFutures.

Table of Contents

The First Set of Problems to Solve

Let’s face it: completion handlers in Swift are a total pain. Really quickly, let’s break down everything obnoxious about the standard callback pattern in Swift:

func getAString(_ completionHandler: (String?, Error?)->())

First off, this requires the consumer of this function to have to unwrap two different values to figure out the actual state of affairs, which ends up resulting in the user having to implement a lengthy switch or if/else if/else block to handle it.

getAString { (string, error) in
  if let string = string {
  else if let error = error {

The user has to type this all this logic out by hand, gets no autocomplete, and no help from the compiler about missed logical cases.

This also reveals the other major problem with this pattern: Did you notice there’s no else case? Despite covering the two logically expected result states, this still isn’t exhaustive. Horrifyingly, the nature of the callback’s signature allows for the possibility of both arguments to be nil, which is a state that makes absolutely no sense to the consumer. But the fact that it’s possible means that they’re kind of forced to handle it.

Unwrapping optionals is already something that Swift developers have to do too often anyway, and nobody likes ambiguous, potentially incoherent states of affairs, so what’s the solution? Enter stage left: My good buddy Result<T>.

The Cast of Characters


Swift enums to the rescue! Seriously, Swift’s immensely powerful enums are probably my favorite part of the language. And Result is an excellent example of why. In the example above, the method signature has a callback that passes back two optional values. Result allows you to collapse that down to a single, non-optional value, like so:

func getAString(_ completionHandler: (Result<String>)->())

Result is a generically typed enum with two cases. A success case with an associated value of whatever the generic type is, and an error case with an associated value of anything conforming to the Error protocol.

This allows the handling of the callback to take one of a couple different forms. Firstly, a switch statement:

getAString { (result) in
  switch result {
  case .success(let value):
  case .error(let error):

While not objectively much more concise than the previous example, a lot of this will be autocompleted by Xcode, and the compiler will let you know if your switch statement is missing a case.

However, this brings me to the other option Result gives you. Sweet, sweet syntactic sugar! I’ve included some functional-style methods on Result which will be very familiar to anyone who’s worked with RxSwift. I’ve included onSuccess and onError methods which allow the consumer to implement success blocks and error blocks independently of one another. That means the consumer can implement one, the other, both, or neither. AND, since each of those methods returns a discardable reference to the Result, the consumer can easily chain them, as you can see below.


getAString { (result) in
  result.onSuccess { (value) in
  }.onError { (error) in

or just one:

getAString { (result) in
  result.onSuccess { (value) in

So, when we have to use completion blocks, Result is a nice, clean, compiler-aided, unwrap-free option. But is there something beyond completion handlers? More on that in a moment.

The other problem with completion blocks: BLOCKCEPTION!

You see, often, asynchronous work relies on other asynchronous work. In a world of traditional completion blocks, this means, at very least, writing a method that has a completion handler, which in turn calls a method which has a completion handler. And god forbid your asynchronous method need to call multiple completion blocks in succession. Then, even if you only implement the success blocks (yikes!) you’d still end up with a nightmare like this:

func getAStringWithTwoNumbersInIt(_ completionHandler:(Result<String>)->()) {
  getInt1 { result1 in
    result1.onSuccess { int1 in
      getInt2 { result2 in
        result1. onSuccess { int2 in
           completionHandler(.success("I got \(int1) and \(int2)! Yay!"))

The Pyramid of Doom: It’s not just for optional binding anymore!

So, how do we solve this?

Promise and Future

If you’ve never been exposed to the concept of promises and/or futures, hoo boy am I absolutely delighted to be the one to tell you about them!

The concept

The concept is fairly simple: A future (in some paradigms called a “delay” or an “eventual”) is an object that acts as a stand-in for a future result. So if you write an asynchronous method that uses futures instead of completion blocks, the future is returned synchronously. The future represents the chunk of asynchronous work being performed by the method that returned it, and is responsible for handling its completion.

So, if you had a method that looked like this with a completion block:

func askForHerPhoneNumber(_ completionHandler:(Int?, Error?)->())

it would look like this, using a Future:

func askForHerPhoneNumber() -> Future<Int>

Providing Futures

This is where Promise<T> comes in. Promise pretty much has one purpose: It vends a Future, and is responsible for resolving or rejecting it. That’s it.

So, if you were writing a method that returns a promise solely for the purpose of encapsulating another method that uses a traditional completion block, it might look like this:

func goCallYourMother() -> Future<AnEarful> {
  let promise = Promise<AnEarful>()

  callYourMotherWithCompletion { (earful, error) in
    if let earful = earful {
    else if let error = error {
    else {
      let noDataError = NSError(domain: "Somehow, this happened. Seriously.", code: 666, userInfo: nil)

  return promise.future

The key features here are: 1) Synchronously, you create a Promise, and then you return the promise’s Future. 2) On completion of the asynchronous work, you either call the resolve(_:) method on the promise and pass in the success value, or the reject(_:) method and pass in an Error.

Consuming futures

This is where it gets fun, boys and girls!

Future has two typealiased block types, ThenBlock ((T)->()) and ErrorBlock ((Error)->()), and it has two public methods which take them as arguments. These two methods are your bread and butter:

then(_:) and error(_:)

Calling these give the future its completion behavior. If somehow the call comes back before either of these are set, the passed in blocks will simply be executed as soon as they’re passed in. Easy-peasy.

So, consuming the future is done like so:

let future: Future<AnEarful> = goCallYourMother()
future.then { (earful) in
}.error { (error) in

or, if you want to be even more concise, there’s no need to assign the future to a variable:

goCallYourMother().then { (earful) in
}.error { (error) in

As you can see, much like the onSuccess(_:) and onError(_:) methods on Result, these return discardable references to the promise and can thus be chained and used together or independently of one another.

Side note: There’s also a handy finally(_:) method as well, which will add a block to be executed after completion, regardless of success or failure. It executes after the given success or failure block.

The real magic about Future is that then(_:) and error(_:) can be called as many times as needed, and each of the actions will execute in order. So, if you have a method which fetches a value and returns a promise, and there are multiple layers of the app that need to be updated with that value, you can pass that future along from method to method, tacking on success actions as you go.

Yes, I know, an example is in order. So, let’s say we have that same method from earlier: func goCallYourMother() -> Future<AnEarful>. We could propagate it along like so:

func callYourMomAndThenReflect() -> Future<AnEarful> {
  return goCallYourMother().then { (earful) in
    self.hooBoyWhatAn(earful) // a local action that needs to happen
  }.error { (error) in
    self.wellAtLeastITried(error) //also a local action that needs to happen

So we’ve called a method that gets a future, tacked on a ThenBlock and an ErrorBlock and then immediately returned that future to whoever consumed this method. The next consumer can do the same, and on and on, and as soon as the initial call completes, it will bubble up completions or errors, all the way up the chain, in order, to the last block(s) added.

But, you ask, what if the values you need at the different layers of your application are of different types?

Say no more. I got you, fam.



Future has a handy-dandy little instance method:

public func map<Q>(_ block:@escaping (T)->(Q?)) -> Future<Q>

This generates a new future of a type of your choice. When you call it, you pass in a mapping block. That block translates from the type of the original promise to the type of your new promise. And, when the original promise resolves or rejects, it will resolve or reject the mapped promise.

Now, let’s imagine that we have a future that goes and gets a phone number, but it gets it as an integer. Then imagine we want to fetch that, but we want it as a string. So if we’ve got that first method: getPhoneNumber() -> Future<Int>, then we can easily map it like so:

func getPhoneNumberString() -> Future<String> {
  return getPhoneNumber().map({ (intValue) -> (String?) in
    return "\(intValue)"

Now, take another look at the signature of the map block: (T)->(Q?). Notice that the return type is optional. If this block returns nil, then the mapped future will fail with a mapping error, regardless of the fact that the parent promise succeeded. So in the end, there are three ways a mapped promise can finish: 1) Its parent promise succeeds and the map succeeds, thus it succeeds. 2) Its parent promise succeeds and the map fails, so it fails. 3) Its parent promise fails and the mapped promise propagates the failure, so it fails.

Pre-resolved and Pre-Rejected futures

There are two last convenience methods on Future I wanted to mention. They are

func preResolved(value: T) -> Future<T>


func preRejected(error: Error) -> Future<T>

These simply return a future that is already resolved or rejected, and they do so synchronously. There are two main uses for these methods:

1) Testing. This collapses several lines of setup in a test down to one. 2) In a method which returns a future, if arguments passed in (or some other aspect of state) are insufficient to do the asynchronous work, then this give you an option to immediately reject the future, and to do so without adding any needless concurrency into the app.

Joined Futures

You may find yourself (perhaps often) in a situation where you may want to wait for several pieces of work to complete before performing an action. The method class func joining(_ futures:[Future<T>]) -> Future<[T]> takes in an array of futures of type T and returns a future with type [T]. This future will resolve once all futures in the array have succeeded, or will be rejected if any one of them failed.

Say, for example, you want to fetch several phone numbers, and you can’t do anything with them until you have all of them (totally real-world example, amirite?). So, you have several methods that return Future<Int>, and you want to perform an action once they all come back. You can do this:

let momsNumberFuture: Future<Int> = getMomsNumber()
let dadsNumberFuture: Future<Int> = getDadsNumber()
let wackyNumberFuture: Future<Int> = getWackyPhoneNumber()

let phoneNumberFutures: [Future<Int>] = [momsNumberFuture, dadsNumberFuture, wackyNumberFuture]

let joinedFuture: Future<[Int]> = Future.joining(phoneNumberFutures)

joinedFuture.then { [weak self] (intValues) in


Periodic Fetcher

When I first finally started to understand RxSwift, I fell head over heels in love with it. I wanted everything in my code to be able to get streams of updates like that. However, a lot of calls in our apps are simple one-offs. You call them once, they execute once, and then they’re done. And with many of those, it would be convenient if there were a way to get that data periodically, in a stream, just like you do in Rx.

Introducing my friend, PeriodicFetcher<T>. Periodic Fetcher repeatedly, at a user-defined time interval, executes a one-off, promise-generating block and emits the callback data from an RxSwift Observable.

The generic type of the Observable is a type called StreamState<T>. StreamState is similar to Result, in that it’s an enum that has .success(T) and .error(Error) cases, but it also has a .noData case. This effectively captures all states in which the stream emitted by the Periodic Fetcher might find itself.

Ok, time for an example. Let’s say that you have a class called, say, MyLife, and it has a static method on it called func howManyFriendsDoIHaveNOW() -> Future<Int>. It’s really important that you check this value regularly (you don’t wanna be working from bad data!). Here’s how our buddy the Periodic Fetcher steps in to help.

let fetcher: PeriodicFetcher<Int> = PeriodicFetcher(futureGenerator: { () -> (Future<Int>) in
  return MyLife.howManyFriendsDoIHaveNOW()
}, timeInterval: { () -> (Double) in
  return 3

You’ve now created a Periodic Fetcher which is ready to grab a Future from the howManyFriendsDoIHaveNOW() method once every 3 seconds. Now, as soon as you call startPeriodicFetch(), if will immediately do it once, and then do it every 3 seconds ever after until told to stop (by using stopPeriodicFetch()).

Also, if at any point you can’t wait the rest of the current 3-second period for any update, you can always call fetchOnce(), which will fire off a promise immediately and then start the 3-second clock over.

Consuming the Periodic Fetcher’s observable is pretty standard Rx fare:

let dBag = DisposeBag()
subject.observable().subscribe(onNext: { (streamState) in
  switch streamState {
  case .success(let friendCount):
  case .error(let error):
  case .noData:
}, onError: nil, onCompleted: nil, onDisposed: nil).disposed(by: dBag)

The one difference from most Rx is that, as you see above, I’ve passed in nil for everything except the onNext block. This is because PeriodicFetcher will never call any of these. It will never officially complete, and it passes all errors through the onNext block in a StreamState enum.


And that’s about it! I hope you find all of this useful, or at least informative.

I’m always tweaking code, finding optimizations, and thinking about new features. Feel free to reach out with questions and suggestions of your own!

All files are tested. Feel free to check out the tests here.

And of course, keep your eye out for version updates!

© 2021 Jake Hawken